Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s fifth-most populous country, with a population of almost 242 million, and has the world’s second-largest Muslim population. Pakistan is the 33rd-largest country by area, spanning 881,913 square kilometers.
Pakistan is the site of several ancient cultures, including the 8,500-year-old Neolithic site of Mehrgarh in Balochistan, and the Indus Valley civilization of the Bronze Age, the most extensive of the civilization’s of the Afro-Eurasia. The region that comprises the modern state of Pakistan was the realm of multiple empires and dynasties.